Key Result Area 1: National climate change coordination processes enhanced
Kenya has developed its National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) for the period 2013-2017, and is in the process of having a climate change policy and bill in place. The draft bill proposes the establishment of a new institutional framework. First, the National Climate Change Council will be responsible for overall coordination, and advisory functions. Secondly, the Climate Change Directorate will coordinate technical implementation of climate change functions. The new climate change institutional framework is expected to enhance climate change coordination in the country, and its operationalization will require support. The Climate Change Bill 2014 has been amended by the National Task Force on Climate Change Law and Policy to align it with the NCCAP, including recommendation for the establishment of the National Climate Change Council and Climate Change Directorate. However, the project will support institutions that will be included in the final bill. Parties agreed at the 19th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 19) in Warsaw to prepare the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) so that they can be submitted well in advance of the Meeting of Parties to the UNFCCC in Paris by March 2015. This project will support the preparation and communication of the INDC. The National Climate Change Action Plan recommends creation of mechanism to track flow of climate funds.
Key Result Area 2: Enhanced access to clean and efficient energy systems
The overall objective of Kenya’s energy policy is to ensure adequate, secure, affordable, sustainable and reliable supply of energy to meet national and county development needs, while protecting and conserving the environment. Reforms within the energy sector in Kenya take cognisance of the role of renewable energy as a major enabler of economic activity within the rural areas and informal urban settlements. These include Geothermal, Hydro, Solar and Wind energy.
The NCCAP prioritizes the diffusion of solar technologies as a low carbon development options. It further identifies the enabling actions that are required to promote the adoption of solar systems to include: provision of incentives to consumers of Solar Home Systems (SHS), promotion of local production, assembly of solar systems, public awareness campaigns and research and development.
The solar market in Kenya is considered successful however, spoilage due to poor quality of products has significantly hindered market growth In addition, the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) has gazetted regulations requiring specialized expertise in designing, installation and maintenance of both solar PV and solar water heating systems. These gaps, including those related to product and technology standards, need to be addressed in order to increase uptake of the technologies. Energy efficiency standards and labelling are highly cost effective means to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPs) specify the minimum set level of energy performance that appliances, lighting and electrical equipment must meet or exceed before they can be sold to consumers. Development of MEPs will be supported towards realization of this key result area.
Key Result Area 3: A national sustainable Greenhouse Gas Inventory in place
In order to fulfil its commitment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kenya being a non-Annex 1 country must periodically prepare and submit National Communication and Biennial Update Reports (BUR). These reports include a comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventory component. GHG inventories provide a fundamental building block to improved measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas emissions and subsequent mitigation actions. In addition to fulfilling a reporting obligation, a rigorous GHG inventory is an essential tool for planning mitigation activities, projecting future emissions and identifying sectors for emission reduction projects. Improved, transparent, consistent, and comparable inventories are the foundation for national, regional and global policy discussions. Through the Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) project, Kenya has made progress in building capacity for preparing GHG inventories that are consistent with the requirements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. However, gaps in institutional capacity, methodological issues and data quality still need to be addressed to improve the national GHG inventory. There is need to use local emission factors for accuracy. In addition, Kenya has not submitted any BUR and is in the process of finalizing its Second National Communication.
Key Result Area 4: National and county decision making tools for climate change interventions enhanced
Although climate change has been mainstreamed in the Medium Term Plan II (MTPII), there is need to integrate climate change in the County Integrated Development Plans (CIDP). Through the African Adaptation Programme (AAP), training on the use of T21 model as a climate change planning tool was facilitated however; retention of trained staff has been a challenge. This raises the need for training a critical mass of modellers and integration of climate change planning in university curriculum. Moreover, inclusion of climate change issues in public staff performance contracting and training is critical to promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation actions across the country
Key Result Area 5: Climate knowledge management and capacity is enhanced
Currently there is significant climate change knowledge being generated by key institutions and individuals. However, there is inadequate sharing of climate change information leading to lack of timely and authoritative response to climate change. The Ministry of Environment Water and Natural Resources has supported the establishment and the construction of a Climate Change Resource Centre that will act as an information hub and clearing house to coordinate and disseminate data and information. The state of the art resource center will need to be equipped with climate change information system and supporting hardware. It will thus house a wealth of information that will contribute towards capacity building on low emission and climate resilient development in Kenya. The center will be certified as a green building with the capacity to host forums and exhibitions.
Key Result Area 6: Minimize the impacts of extreme climate events for improved and resilient livelihoods
Early warning information is useful in rapid response to extreme climate events such as floods and droughts. The information generated by Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) need to be disseminated widely and timely for informed and effective response especially by farmers. Thus, there is need to enhance the existing database and real-time data to initialize climate dynamic models by expanding the existing Climate Data Analysis High Performance Computer Cluster at KMS. KMS will receive support towards enhancing its data processing, forecasting and dissemination system for improved applications of products in various economic sectors. This will also contribute towards availing climate information relevant to effective delivery of weather based index agricultural insurance as a key strategy for climate change adaptation to aid communities’ resilience to the weather and climate related catastrophes. Previous attempts to promote weather based index insurance have been hampered by lack of real time weather information.